Esophageal motility disorders (Total 1586369 Papers Found)

  • Douglas D Ferguson,
  • Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • 2005
Patients with progressive or solid food dysphagia should be evaluated for the presence of an esophageal stricture. Barium esophagram and endoscopy can define strictures as benign or malignant. The majority of benign strictures are acid-related. Benign strictures are best managed by esophageal dilation with acid-suppressing medications if a peptic stricture is suspected. If dysphagia recurs, repeat dilation should be performed. There are a variety of interventions for refractory strictures which ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The Chicago classification was based on metrics derived from studies in asymptomatic adult subjects. Our objectives were to characterize esophageal motility disorders in children and to determine whether the spectrum of manometric findings is similar between the pediatric and adult populations. RECENT FINDINGS Studies have suggested that the metrics utilized in manometric diagnosis depend on age, size, and manometric assembly. This would imply that a different set of metrics ...
AIMS To analyze whether outcome of neonates having esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA±TEF) associated with anorectal malformation (ARM) can be improved by doing surgery in 2 stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study of neonates having both EA±TEF and ARM from 2004 to 2011. The patients with favorable parameters were operated in a single stage, whereas others underwent first-stage decompression surgery for ARM. Thereafter, once septicemia was under contro ...
Bronchoesophageal fistula is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. We report a case of Hodgkin's disease presenting with a bronchoesophageal fistula that was successfully treated with bipolar esophageal exclusion and substernal gastric bypass. Direct invasion from mediastinal lymph nodes was the probable cause. Although bronchoesophageal fistula can result as a complication during the course of treatment for Hodgkin's disease, it rarely occurs as the presenting feature. Early recognition and ...
Genetic mechanisms for the pathogenesis of visceral myopathy (VM) have been rarely demonstrated. Here we report the visceral role of misato (mst) in Drosophila and its implications for the pathogenesis of VM. Depletion of mst using three independent RNAi lines expressed by a pan-muscular driver elicited characteristic symptoms of VM, such as abnormal dilation of intestinal tracts, reduced gut motility, feeding defects, and decreased life span. By contrast, exaggerated expression of mst reduced i ...
Objective. To investigate the esophageal function tests in British and Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods. Patients with GERD were selected from the functional gut clinic, London, and digestive department, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, after taking the examinations of High-resolution Manometry and Impedance (HRiM) and 24-hour Multi-Channel Intraluminal Impedance and pH Recording (MII/pH) between 2013 and 2014. Chinese healthy volunteers who undertook HRiM were al ...
Gastrin is mainly found in the antral mucosa, and in smaller amounts in the duodenal and upper jejunal mucosa. It probably also exists in the pancreas. Gastrin predominantly acts as a physiological stimulator of gastric hydrochloric acid secretion, of gastric motility and as a stimulator of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Gastrin is a heptadekapeptide of known amino acid constitution. It is released by local chemical and mechanical stimuli and by vagal action. Hydrochloric acid exerts a ...
Although gastroparesis does not influence gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or antireflux surgery, many patients with GERD will also suffer from gastroparesis-related bloating as a distinct symptom different from GERD-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a pyloroplasty with a fundoplication will improve bloating symptoms in these patients. A prospectively gathered database of all patients undergoing antireflux surgery was reviewed. All patients underwent history ...
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has a high prevalence worldwide. Recent reports have noted a high prevalence even in Asian countries. GERD significantly affects the quality of life and can present with a wide variety of symptoms. Not all reflux is acid, and non-acid reflux disease can be more difficult to diagnose and can lead to a variety of extra-esophageal symptoms. Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective in the majority of patients, but they are not without side effects, ...
We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman with CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia) associated pulmonary hypertension undergoing transradial coronary angiography. The day after the procedure, the patient complained of severe symptoms and signs of acute hand ischemia. Urgent right upper extremity angiography showed the lack of ulnar palmar arch and a severe narrowed radial artery with endoluminal filling defect. The patient was succes ...
AIM To determine the gastroesophageal refluxate in the cervical esophagus (CE) and measure transcutaneous cervical esophageal ultrasound (TCEUS) findings [anterior wall thickness (WT) of CE, esophageal luminal diameter (ELD), esophageal diameter (ED)]; to compare TCEUS findings in the patient subgroups divided according to 24-h esophageal pH monitoring and manometry; and to investigate possible cut-off values according to the TCEUS findings as a predictor of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). METH ...
Peristaltic contractions of the distal esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter tone were evaluated in patients affected by gastroesophageal reflux disease after either acute intravenous (8.0 mg) administration or two oral doses (5.0 mg and 10.0 mg) of cisapride and in healthy controls after a 10.0-mg oral dose of cisapride. Intravenous cisapride administration enhanced the amplitude and duration of primary peristalsis and the lower esophageal sphincter tone, which reached normal control v ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS Isolated lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation associated with belching and vomiting and the transient LES relaxation associated with gastroesophageal reflux are gastric afferent-mediated vagovagal reflexes. We aimed to identify the brain stem vagal subnuclei involved in these reflexes. METHODS In anesthetized mice, LES pressures were recorded using a manometric technique and response to electrical stimulation of the ventral trunk of subdiaphragmatic vagus was investiga ...
  • Lionel M Kowal,
  • Australian and New Zealand journal of ophthalmology
  • 1992
Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. ...
Five adolescents, 13-18 years of age, underwent esophageal manometric studies because of chronic symptoms suggestive of esophageal dysfunction. Four of five patients had episodic nonexertional midchest pain; two patients experienced intermittent dysphagia. The manometric findings for these adolescents were consistent with a primary motility disorder known as diffuse esophageal spasm, a condition not previously reported in this age group. This represents approximately 1% of all pediatric patients ...
Clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in esophagus are limited, because of the relatively rare incidence of esophageal GISTs. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of esophageal GISTs, and to investigate the potential factors that may predict prognosis.Esophageal GIST cases were obtained from our center and from case reports and clinical studies extracted from MEDLINE. ...
BACKGROUND Older patients are commonly excluded from clinical trials in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (gej) cancer. High-level evidence to guide management in this group is lacking. In the present study, we compared outcomes and described tolerance for curative- and noncurative-intent treatments among patients 70 years of age and older. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed all patients 70 years of age and older diagnosed with localized esophageal and gej cancer at our centre between ...
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is frequently found in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and can result in diffuse lymphadenopathy from disseminated disease. A case is presented of esophageal erosion and perforation secondary to mediastinal lymph node enlargement from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a patient positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Emergent surgical intervention required resection of the perforated esophagus, end-cervical esophagostomy, gastrostomy, and ...
Since its description over 250 years ago, diagnosis of esophageal perforation remains challenging, its management controversial, and its mortality high. This rare, devastating, mostly iatrogenic, condition can quickly lead to severe complications and death due to an overwhelming inflammatory response to gastric contents in the mediastinum. Diagnosis is made with the help of esophagograms and although such tears have traditionally been managed via aggressive surgical approach, recent reports emph ...
BACKGROUND The prevalence of gastric emptying (GE) disorders in cats is unknown due to lack of clinically applicable diagnostic tests. OBJECTIVES The principal aim of this study was to assess correlation between scintigraphic and ultrasonographic measurements of GE time (GET) in healthy cats. Additionally, variability of ultrasonographic GET, and correlation between scintigraphy and ultrasonographic parameters of gastric motility were evaluated. ANIMALS Eight healthy domestic shorthair cats. ...
Twenty-seven patients with gastroesophageal reflux were prospectively investigated to define the role of duodenogastric reflux in the development of reflux esophagitis. Duodenogastric reflux was detected and quantified by pH monitoring of the gastric environment 5 cm distal to the distal esophageal sphincter. Alkaline duodenogastric reflux was identified by the occurrence of spontaneous, intense gastric alkalinization during fasting periods. Patients with reflux with esophagitis were distinguish ...
The VACTERL-H syndrome is a rare combination of vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, congenital heart defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, abnormalities of kidneys and limb anomalies together with hydrocephalus. This condition is recognized as a hereditary entity with poor prognosis. We present a newborn weighing 3400 g, born by cesarean section to a 27 years old mother who had had an irregular antenatal follow-up. The patient had severe hydrocephalus, proximal esophageal atresia and distal trache ...
OBJECTIVE To assess geographical sociodemographic differences in the pediatric esophageal foreign body population of Los Angeles. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 128 consecutive pediatric patients at Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) from 2014 to 2017 with a diagnosis of a retained foreign body in the esophagus removed by rigid or flexible esophagoscopy. Sociodemographic information including zip code of residence was extracted and analyzed with Chi-square, Fish ...
The ability to reproduce chest pain and to identify the esophagus as the source of this pain are the major reasons why provocation testing has become standard in the evaluation of patients with noncardiac chest pain. Recent studies that challenge the validity of performing provocation tests have polarized experts into two camps: those who would abandon such testing because of its low sensitivity and low specificity, and those who would use testing judiciously because of moderate increases in dia ...
Although primary band placement is proven to be safe, gastric band placement after previous operations in the area of the gastroesophageal junction remains controversial. Erosion into the stomach has been described after failed vertical banded gastroplasty conversion to laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB), but no reports in the English literature are available on erosion of an adjustable gastric band into the esophagus after conversion operations. To our knowledge, this is the first case report ...
BACKGROUND Although rare, esophageal achalasia is the best described primary esophageal motility disorder. Commonly used treatments are endoscopic botulin toxin injection (EBTI), endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD), and surgical myotomy with or without a fundoplication; however, reported outcomes mostly come from cohort studies. OBJECTIVE To summarize and compare the safety and efficacy of endoscopic and surgical treatments for esophageal achalasia. METHODS A systematic electronic Medline lite ...
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and sleep disturbances are both common health problems. There is a significant association between disturbed sleep and GERD, and this may be bidirectional. Sleep disorders may induce gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, while GI symptoms also may provoke or worsen sleep derangements. Reflux of gastric acid is a less frequent event during sleep, however, acid clearance mechanisms (including swallowing, salivation and primary esophageal motility) are impaired ...
OBJECTIVE To assess the causes of failure of laparoscopic Heller myotomy and to verify whether endoscopic pneumatic dilation is a feasible treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Laparoscopic Heller myotomy has proved an effective treatment for esophageal achalasia, with good or excellent results in 90% of patients. The treatment of failures remains controversial, however. METHODS From 1992 to 1999, 113 patients underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy for esophageal achalasia. Ten patients (8.7%) r ...
BACKGROUND Terlipressin (triglycyl lysine vasopressin) is a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, which has been used in the treatment of acute variceal hemorrhage. In contrast to vasopressin, terlipressin can be administered as intermittent injections instead of continuous intravenous infusion and it has a safer adverse reactions profile. However, its effectiveness remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES To determine if treatment with terlipressin improves outcome in acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage a ...
BACKGROUND/AIMS To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC; Histoacryl) for treatment of bleeding gastric varices. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the records of 455 patients with gastric variceal hemorrhage (GVH) who were consecutively treated with NBC from January 2004 to July 2013, with a mean follow-up period of 582 days. The patients' endoscopic findings, initial hemostasis, complications, rebleeding rates, and bleeding-relate ...
Esophageal perforation can be a difficult management problem in a patient with spinal cord injury. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are essential for diagnosis. A quadriplegic patient with the unusual complication of esophagocutaneous fistula following anterior cervical fusion was admitted to our spinal cord injury service for intensive rehabilitation. Although early surgery is the usual treatment, conservative management with emphasis on local wound care can lead to satisfacto ...
We studied the effects of the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine on esophageal smooth muscle function in 10 normal volunteers. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure and relaxation and esophageal contraction amplitude, peristalsis, velocity, and duration after wet swallows were determined before and for 120 min after the sublingual/buccal administration of placebo and of nifedipine in doses of 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg. Blood samples for measurement of plasma nifedipine concentration were obtained at b ...
A 69-year-old white man developed progressive symptoms of dysphagia for solids and liquids and regurgitation of undigested food accompanied by a 12-kg weight loss over a 4-month period. Initially, radiographs of the esophagus and stomach were normal, but when repeated 4 months later, a diagnosis of achalasia was suggested. Esophageal manometry performed at the time demonstrated a motor abnormality of the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter consistent with a diagnosis of achalasia. Upper end ...
OBJECTIVE This case series is the first to describe divergence palsy as an adverse effect of antiepileptic drug use. Diplopia is a common adverse effect of antiepileptic drugs, but no explanatory motility deficit has ever been reported. METHODS We present 2 patients, 1 on oxcarbazepine and 1 on divalproex, each with a normal examination result between spells and divergency palsy when symptomatic. RESULTS Discontinuation of the antiepileptic medication led to resolution of the episodes in bot ...
BACKGROUND There is today a significant greater number of laparoscopic antireflux procedures for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and there are yet controversies about the necessity of division of the short gastric vessels and full mobilization of the gastric fundus to perform an adequate fundoplication. AIM To verify the results of the surgical treatment of non-complicated gastroesophageal reflux disease performing Rossetti modification of the Nissen fundoplication. P ...
The pathogenesis of diabetes-associated motility disorders are multifactorial and attributed to abnormalities in extrinsic and intrinsic innervation, and a decrease in the number of interstitial cells of Cajal, and nNOS expression and activity. Here we studied the effect of hyperglycemia on smooth muscle function. Using smooth muscles from the fundus of ob/ob mice and of wild type (WT) mice treated with 30 mM glucose (HG), we identified the molecular mechanism by which hyperglycemia upregulates ...
This study evaluates midazolam's immediate pharmacological impact on esophageal motility. Stationary esophageal motility in normal male volunteers was evaluated to obtain a baseline study. Immediately after the baseline study, each subject received midazolam 0.02 micrograms/kg intravenously, and underwent repeat manometry 5 min later. Midazolam produced a variety of motility changes. There was a decrease in upper esophageal sphincter resting pressures (p < 0.05). Median pressures increased in ...