Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Total 407333 Papers Found)

The most prevalent sub-group of abnormal repetitive behaviors among captive animals is that of stereotypies. Previous studies have demonstrated some resemblance between stereotypy in captive animals and in humans, including the involvement of neurological malfunctions that lead to the expression of stereotypies. This malfunction can be evaluated through the use of neuropsychological tasks that assess perseveration as implying a failure of the basal ganglia (BG) to operate properly. Other studies ...
A novel drug delivery system for beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) has been constructed through self-assembly of a pegylated phospholipid-polyaminoacid conjugate. This copolymer was obtained by chemical reaction of α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA) with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethyleneglycol)2000] (DSPE-PEG(2000)-NH(2)). Benefiting from the amphiphilic structure with the hydrophilic shell based on both PHEA and PEG and many hydrophobic stearo ...
INTRODUCTION The occurrence of postoperative incisional hernia is more frequent after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation compared with other transplanted parenchymal organs. These complications are especially dangerous in this patient population, because they can compromise the survival of the transplanted organ. METHODS We performed a retrospective review of a series of adult patients with incisional herniae after 23 consecutive simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantations between ...
A 49-year-old woman with seronegative myasthenia gravis (SNMG) was admitted to our hospital with severe respiratory failure, proximal muscle weakness and bulbar palsy. Permanent tracheostomy and continuous mechanical ventilation were performed. At a previous hospital, she was diagnosed as SNMG on the basis of the positive waning during 3 Hz repetitive stimulation of the ulnar nerve, although no acetylcholine receptor antibodies (Ab) were detected by serological examination. Before admission to o ...
Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N = 68). No effects of objectiv ...
PURPOSE To determine the outcomes in children at high risk for death or complications from respiratory disease who are hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. SETTING Twelve pediatric tertiary care centers. PATIENTS All hospitalized children with an RSV infection diagnosed by a positive antigen detection test result or viral isolation during the study period from 1988 to 1991, encompassing three winter seasons. Charts from patients ...
CRITCHLOW, V., R. A. LIEBELT, M. BAR-SELA, W. MOUNTCASTLE, AND H. S. LIPSCOMB. Sex dijerence in resting pituitaryadrenal function in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 205(5): 807-815. I g63.-Resting levels of plasma and adrenal corticosteroids, pituitary content of adrenocorticotropin, and circulating leukocytes were determined at intervals during controlled 24-hr light-dark cycles in intact, castrated, sham-castrated adult and prepubertal male and female rats. To study the influence of environmental lig ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The use of anticholinergic medications is well established as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a growing interest in the use of anticholinergic medications in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma. The purpose of this review is to summarize the scientific evidence for the use of anticholinergic therapy in the management of asthma. RECENT FINDINGS Early case reports and small studies evaluated the use of the anticholinergic ag ...
Intrahepatic cholestasis and aplastic anemia after N-propylajmaline. A 43 year old female patient taking oral contraceptives for more than five years received the antiarrhythmic drug N-propylajmaline for treatment of ventricular arrhythmia. After twelve days (totale dosage 510 mg N-propyl-ajmaline) acute severe intrahepatic cholestasis and aplastic anemia developed. The erythropoeisis improved after three weeks of treatment with corticosteroids. However, despite treatment with phenobarbital the ...
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a skin disease that predominantly affects adults, especially women aged 20 to 40 years, and is characterized by the recurrent appearance of localized or widespread wheals, angioedema or both, without apparent external trigger.1,2 Severe CSU has a detrimental effect on the quality of life and is a frequent cause of absenteeism from school and work.3 The pathogenesis of CSU is not well understood, and it appears to have an autoimmune cause in approximately on ...
INTRODUCTION Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans is defined histologically as obliteration of the lumina of bronchioles by inflammatory tissue elements and progressive destruction of bronchioles, eventually replaced by fibrotic tissue. Most of the cases, which are not associated with either solid organ or bone marrow transplantation, occur in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. EXEGESIS We present the case of a 73-year-old woman who developed severe constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans ...
A 33-year old housewife who developed BOOP in a flare-up stage of SLE was reported. She had been treated for Hashimoto's thyroidtis since the age of 18. When the patient was 21 years old, she noticed polyarthritis and subcutaneous nodules. She had a high titer of rheumatoid factor and a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was made. At the age of 23, ulnar drift was noted despite the lack of subjective and objective signs of active articular inflammation. At the age of 25, she developed dry eyes an ...
PURPOSE Cyclosporin is advocated in the treatment of acute severe ulcerative colitis that has failed to respond to high-dose corticosteroid therapy. This approach is controversial, with critics highlighting the temporary nature of remissions and the potential for adverse effects. There have been few reports of the long-term outcome of those patients who do respond. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of all patients treated with cyclosporin at our institution over t ...
Purification of the mineralcorticoid receptor is a particularly challenging problem. This receptor is present in target tissues at concentrations lower and is less stable than any other steroid receptor. Addition of molybdate ions (20 mM) to rat kidney cytosol enhances stability of mineralcorticoid-specific binding sites: the inactivation rate at 0 degrees C decreases from 7.2 to 1.7% per hour in the absence of aldosterone, and from 1.8 to 0.3% per hour in the presence of hormone. Rates of inact ...
BACKGROUND Neutrophils play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary infection. Impaired neutrophil phagocytosis predicts hospital-acquired infection. Despite this, remarkably few neutrophil-specific treatments exist. OBJECTIVES We sought to identify novel pathways for the restoration of effective neutrophil phagocytosis and to activate such pathways effectively in neutrophils from patients with impaired neutrophil phagocytosis. METHODS Blood ...
Asthma in the elderly may present difficult management problems. We reviewed 46 elderly patients with corticosteroid dependent asthma who have been managed on our ambulatory service for an average of nine years. We present our therapeutic regimens which resulted in better control for the majority of patients. The goals of therapy were control of asthma to prevent status asthmaticus which is potentially fatal asthma. In those patients who did not improve, inability to comply with our regimens was ...
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS For 3 weeks a 54-year-old man had been unsuccessfully treated with antibiotics for ulcerating tonsillitis with fever, weight loss, occasional headaches, and hypertension. A year before he had suffered a transitory cerebral ischaemic attack. On admission he had a fever of 38.6 degrees C, blood pressure of 185/100 mmHg and a nonspecific 2/6 apical systolic murmur. INVESTIGATIONS Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 100/120 mm, C-reactive protein 1.5 mg/dl, serum crea ...
OBJECTIVE To describe the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of the effect of corticosteroids in a patient with late septic shock. DESIGN Case report. SETTING The medical intensive care unit at University Medical Center Utrecht. PATIENT An 86-yr-old female patient with late septic shock requiring mechanical ventilation and vasopressive agents. INTERVENTIONS Administration of hydrocortisone, 300 mg daily. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Within 3 days of corticosteroid treatment, the p ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW First recognized in 1974, eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a fibrosing disorder of the fascia with characteristic cutaneous and hematologic manifestations. This review discusses recent trends in the diagnosis and treatment of EF. RECENT FINDINGS Although fascial biopsy has classically been considered the gold standard for making a diagnosis of EF, radiologic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, has been increasingly used for both diagnosis and monitoring of treatme ...
Acute pulmonary disease may occur as part of the hypersensitivity angitis produced by phenytoin sodium. The clinical features of the pulmonary involvement are fever, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and bilateral radiographic infiltrates. The pathologic process is an interstitial pneumonitis that appears reversible with cessation of the drug and treatment with corticosteroids. ...
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic focal lymphocytic inflammation of exocrine tissues leading to glandular dysfunction, in particular the diagnostic features of dry eyes and dry mouth w1x. SS may exist as a primary disorder or can be associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis. The key clinical manifestations of SS are derived from the ocular ...
A 38-year-old businessman presented with an intensely itching eczematous patch on the anterolateral aspect of each thigh; the lesions, symmetrically localized, were different in size and severity (Fig. 1). He reported a 1-year history of spontaneous variability, with worsening of a lesion matched by improvement on the contralateral side and vice versa. Response to oral antihistamines and topic and/or systemic corticosteroids was temporary. Patch tests were performed with the SIDAPA (Italian Soci ...
METHODS. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment for 3 years with dust mite SLIT plus standard pharmacotherapy or pharmacotherapy alone. The prescribed SLIT solution consisted of 50% Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and 50% Dermatophagoides farinae. Doses were increased gradually to a maintenance dose, which was taken 2 times per week. All participants were initially started on 800 g/day of inhaled budesonide. Follow-up visits were performed every 2 to 3 months, at which times the inhaled ...
Hyperlipidemia is common after renal transplantation and has been attributed, at least in part, to corticosteroid therapy. We therefore studied serum lipids in a group of nondiabetic transplant recipients on conventional immunosuppression with azathioprin and prednisone (Aza/P), in comparison with a transplanted group on cyclosporin A monotherapy (CyA) without steroids. Frequency and degree of hyperlipidemia in the two groups showed no significant difference. Atherogenic hypercholesteremia was f ...
Prednicarbate (PC) is a nonhalogenated derivative of prednisolone which is used for the local treatment of corticoid-sensitive skin diseases. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and the metabolism of PC in humans are investigated after cutaneous ointment application (75 mg PC) and after systemic oral administration (40 mg PC) in 8 healthy volunteers. In addition, the possible suppression of endogenous cortisol secretion by both application forms was monitored. After oral administration no intact ...
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission associated with a deficiency of acetylcholine receptors. Current therapies that influence the immune response include: thymectomy, corticosteroids, non steroidal immunosuppression and plasmapheresis. The management of patients with myasthenia gravis, usually involves a combination of these therapies to produce an adequate response. 1-3 Such a combination exposes the patient to a significant level of toxicity. However, trea ...
BACKGROUND Clinical studies of inhaled salmeterol xinafoate have been conducted mainly in moderately to severely affected asthmatic subjects in hospital settings. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of this drug in patients with milder asthma in primary care. METHODS A multicentre, double blind, randomised, parallel group comparison of salmeterol xinafoate in a dose of 50 micrograms twice daily with placebo, both administered from a four-place dry powder inhaler (Diskhale ...
The authors have presented a review of literature and their own data on acute tubulointerstitial nephritis combined with uveitis in a patient aged 47. In foreign literature this combination is defined as a separate syndrome (TIN-uveitis or TINU). The development of nonspecific symptoms (fatigue, weakness, nausea, loss of body mass, pains in the joints, skin rash) was characterized by change in some laboratory indices (raised ESP, anemia, eosinophilia, hyperproteinemia, hypergammaglobulinemia) an ...
Infantile hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor of childhood. This benign tumor appears during the first weeks of life, grows during the first months (endothelial proliferation) and then involutes slowly and spontaneously until resolution (possibly with sequelae) which is observed after several years. Although they are always benign tumors, infantile hemangiomas can cause complications. Regarding their location or size, infantile hemangiomas can be life or function-threatening. They are a ...
BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-6-634 polymorphism in neonatal disorders such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. METHODS This prospective cohort study included 202 infants (gestational age at birth, 23-34 weeks; birthweight, 500-1499 g). Genotypic analysis (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) was performed with DNA extracted from w ...
Intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) is a procedure performed by a wide array of healthcare providers for the treatment of osteoarthritis as well as inflammatory arthritis. Although the adverse psychiatric effects of oral or parental corticosteroids are well recognized, the psychiatric effects following IACI are not routinely considered. We report here a case of a patient with dramatic psychiatric disturbances following temporally separated IACIs. To our knowledge, this is the first r ...
Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (Seretide, Advair, Viani) administered using a multidose dry powder inhaler (Diskus, Accuhaler) is approved for use in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in numerous countries.Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate administered twice daily via dry powder inhaler is effective and generally well tolerated in patients with COPD. Although not associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality versus placebo in the TORCH study (p ...
1. Bei 101 Corticosteroid-behandelten Patienten mit chronischem Bronchialasthma wurden quantitative röntgenologische Kontrollen des Mineralisationsgrades der Wirbelsäule durchgeführt und mit Standardwerten für Alter und Geschlecht verglichen: In 26% der Fälle bestand nach mehrmonatiger bis mehrjähriger Corticoidtherapie eine Osteoporose. Diese nahm bei der Mehrzahl der Patienten im Laufe der folgenden 1–2 Jahre noch zu. 2. In einem 1–2jährigen Beobachtungszeitraum trat nur 1 neuer Ost ...
21-hydroxylase deficiency was described as a fatal disease in infancy manifested by severe adrenal insufficiency with lack of differentiation of the external genitalia in males. Patients are in adrenal insufficiency or receiving long term corticosteroid therapy and are unable to respond normally to surgery or other forms of stress. Therefore, supplementation with corticosteroids and various regimens are required for surgery and anesthetic management. A 3 year 10 months correction of 6] old pheno ...
Administration of methamphetamine (15 mg/kg) to adrenalectomized rats significantly decreased hippocampal type I and II corticosteroid receptors as well as type II receptors in the striatum. Type II receptors in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus were unaffected by methamphetamine administration. Pretreatment with MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, antagonized the methamphetamine-induced decrease in hippocampal and striatal corticosteroid receptors. These re ...
Bisphosphonates are now well established as successful agents for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, corticosteroid-induced bone loss and Paget's disease. Bisphosphonates have also recently become important in the management of cancer-induced bone disease, and they now have a widely recognized role for patients with multiple myeloma and bone metastases secondary to breast cancer and prostate cancer. Recent studies suggest that, besides the strong antiosteoclastic activi ...
We have recently read with interest the article by Kaya et al 1 in CHEST (August 2012) reporting on a patient suffering from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) who responded successfully to omalizumab. Five years ago, we attended a 43-year-old nonsmoking man who complained of cough, fever, dyspnea, and wheezing. On the basis of his clinical presentation, peripheral blood and BAL eosinophilia, and the presence of bilateral peripheral infi ltrates on the chest radiograph, the diagnosis of CEP wa ...
Churg-Strauss Syndrome is a disorder characterized by pulmonary and systemic necrotizing vasculitis, extravascular granulomas, and eosinophilia occurring almost exclusively in patients with asthma or a history of allergy. The clinical manifestations most commonly associated with asthma are mononeuritis multiplex, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, cardiac and renal involvement. ANCA are found in 2/3 of the patients with Churg-Strauss Syndrome and are usually p-ANCA. The treatment of Churg-Strauss Synd ...
A retrospective analysis of 14 pediatric cases with fibrosing alveolitis, proved by lung biopsy, was carried out. The children were initially 6-16 years old (mean: 9.8 years) and were observed for 2 to 7 years. Symptoms had been present prior to diagnosis for 1 to 156 weeks (median: 11 weeks). The most prominent clinical findings were dyspnoea (100%), dry cough (91%), tachypnoea (85%), and weight loss (70%). Open (n = 9) or transbronchial (n = 5) lung biopsy specimens had predominantly cellular ...
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a tetramer structure with independent channels. The structure was discovered in 1991 by Preston and Agre. The channels are widely expressed throughout the body. Currently there are at least 10 isoforms of AQPs recognized namely AQP (0-9). Primarily AQPs function as water channel and expressed at the sites where rapid fluid transport is to occur such as kidneys, lungs, brain, eyes and glands but there are exceptions. In addition to its function as water channel AQP-1 also tr ...
Humans risk inadvertent intraperitoneal or intravenous exposure to formaldehyde (HCHO), commonly used for disinfection of implanted or extracorporeal medical devices. Various chemical and physical stresses are known to induce hepatic metallothionein. This study examined the effect of acute parenteral administration of HCHO on induction of hepatic metallothionein synthesis. Adult male CF1 mice were administered HCHO ip and hepatic metallothionein was quantified by the cadmium-radioassay method. H ...
Symptomatic duodenal Crohn's disease (CD) is an uncommon disease presentation, especially in isolation. The most common duodenal disease phenotype is stricturing disease rather than inflammatory or perforating. Most patients are asymptomatic and are therefore diagnosed incidentally by cross-sectional imaging or endoscopy. Medical management includes proton pump inhibitor therapy and immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids, immunomodulatory therapy, and biologic therapy. Symptomatic s ...
PURPOSE Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects up to 40 million Americans, with an estimated cost of $2.7 billion per annum. This review discusses several therapeutic options that reduce the symptoms of AR, including allergen avoidance, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids (INS), leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. DATA SOURCES The articles included in this review were retrieved by a search of Medline literature on the subjects of AR, antihistamines, INS, leukotriene antagonists ...
Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) is often complicated by osteoporosis. Although corticosteroid therapy undoubtedly plays a causative role, inflammation associated with PV may also contribute to osteoporosis. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with PV before corticosteroid therapy and to compare these findings with those reported previously in healthy volunteers. Newly diagnosed patients with PV, who had not received systemic corticosteroids, were enrolled.  B ...
The study objective was to assess Canadian emergency physicians for their management preferences and their compliance with recently developed guidelines for treatment of acute asthma in adults. The design was a cross-sectional survey sent to members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) and to the emergency department (ED) directors of all Canadian hospitals with more than 25 beds in November 1992. ED directors who had not responded were sent a second survey in January 1993. ...