Prodifferentiation, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects of delphinidin, a dietary anthocyanidin, in a full-thickness three-dimensional reconstituted human skin model of psoriasis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of skin and joints for which conventional treatments that are effective in clearing the moderate-to-severe disease are limited due to long-term safety issues. This necessitates exploring the usefulness of botanical agents for treating psoriasis. We previously showed that delphinidin, a diet-derived anthocyanidin endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, induces normal epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and suggested its possible usefulness for the treatment of psoriasis [1]. OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of delphinidin (0-20 μM; 2-5 days) on psoriatic epidermal keratinocyte differentiation, proliferation and inflammation using a three-dimensional reconstructed human psoriatic skin equivalent (PSE) model. METHODS PSEs and normal skin equivalents (NSEs) established on fibroblast-contracted collagen gels with respective psoriatic and normal keratinocytes and treated with/without delphinidin were analyzed for histology, expression of markers of differentiation, proliferation and inflammation using histomorphometry, immunoblotting, immunochemistry, qPCR and cultured supernatants for cytokine with a Multi-Analyte ELISArray Kit. RESULTS Our data show that treatment of PSE with delphinidin induced (1) cornification without affecting apoptosis and (2) the mRNA and protein expression of markers of differentiation (caspase-14, filaggrin, loricrin, involucrin). It also decreased the expression of markers of proliferation (Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and inflammation (inducible nitric oxide synthase and antimicrobial peptides S100A7-psoriasin and S100A15-koebnerisin, which are often induced in psoriatic skin). ELISArray showed increased release of psoriasis-associated keratinocyte-derived proinflammatory cytokines in supernatants of the PSE cultures, and this increase was significantly suppressed by delphinidin. CONCLUSIONS These observations provide a rationale for developing delphinidin for the management of psoriasis.

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